# Prof. Judah Eisenberg - Publications

1938-1998

**Books:**

- Three-volume series of scientific monographs: Nuclear Theory, by J.M. Eisenberg and W. Greiner (North-Holland, Amsterdam):
- Volume 1: Nuclear models (first edition, 1970, 476 pages; second edition, 1975, 485 pages; third edition, 1987, 920 pages)
- Volume 2: Excitation mechanisms of the nucleus (first edition, 1970, 370 pages; second edition, 1976, 421 pages; third edition, 1988, 516 pages)
- Volume 3: Microscopic theory of the nucleus (first edition, 1972, 519 pages; second edition, 1976, 519 pages; third edition, in preparation)

This series has also appeared in a Russian edition.

- Scientific monograph: Theory of Meson Interactions with Nuclei, by J.M. Eisenberg and D.S. Koltun (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1980) 403 pages.
- Textbook on advanced quantum mechanics: Quantum Mechanics of Many Degrees of Freedom, by D.S. Koltun and J.M. Eisenberg (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1988) 313 pages.

Thesis: Induced Dalitz pair emission in the decay of the Σ0, Ph.D. dissertation (M.I.T., 1962, unpublished).

**Papers in scientific journals:**

- Isospin selection rules for high-energy electron scattering, J.M. Eisenberg and M.E. Rose, Phys. Rev. 131 (1963) 848–853.
- Direct electrodisintegration and photoeffect of nuclei, J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. 132 (1963) 2243–2250.
- Inelastic scattering from 40Ca in the giant resonance region, L.J. Weigert and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. 53 (1964) 508–518.
- Photoexcitation of electric dipole states in 28Si, L.N. Bolen and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. 9 (1964) 52–53.
- Angular distributions in the 27Al(p,γ)28Si reaction, J.B. Seaborn and J.M. Eisenberg, Can. J. Phys. 42 (1964) 2497–2499.
- Electroexcitation of giant resonance levels in 28Si, J.B. Seaborn and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. 63 (1965) 496–503.
- Photoexcitation of M1 and E2 levels in 16O, B.M. Spicer and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. 63 (1965) 520–525.
- Isospin selection rules for inelastic electron scattering in the shell model, J.B. Seaborn and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. 70 (1965) 264–272.
- Even-parity states in 16O, J.M. Eisenberg, B.M. Spicer and M.E. Rose, Nucl. Phys. 71 (1965) 273–298.
- Even-parity states in 16O, J.B. Seaborn and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. 82 (1966) 308–320.
- Radiative pion absorption in complex nuclei, D.K. Anderson and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. 22 (1966) 164–166.
- The surface delta interaction and excitations in closed shell nuclei, J. LeTourneux and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. 85 (1966) 119–128.
- Core excitation of 20Ne, G.J. Borse and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. 22 (1966) 630–631.
- Single-nucleon emission following the absorption of free pions, J. LeTourneux and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. 87 (1966) 331–336.
- Particle–hole description of 28Si and 32S, S.A. Farris and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. 88 (1966) 241–256.
- Double-nucleon emission following the absorption of bound pions, J. LeTourneux and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. B3 (1967) 47–72.
- Inelastic electron scattering cross sections using a finite nuclear well, F.D. Holder and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A106 (1968) 261–274.
- Effects of strong interactions and finite nuclear charge radius in pionic atoms, L.P. Fulcher, J.M. Eisenberg and J. LeTourneux, Can J. Phys. 45 (1967) 3313–3318.
- Pion charge-exchange scattering on nuclei and proton–neutron correlations, J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. B3 (1967) 387–394.
- Radiative pion absorption and muon capture, H. Pietschmann, L.P. Fulcher and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19 (1967) 1259–1261.
- Double-nucleon emission following the absorption of bound pions, R. Guy, J.M. Eisenberg and J. LeTourneux, Nucl. Phys. A112 (1968) 689–696.
- Odd-parity states in the A = 6 and 14 systems, B.S. Cooper and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A114 (1968) 184–210.
- Spin effects in pion charge-exchange scattering on nuclei, L.A. Charlton and J.M. Eisenberg, Can. J. Phys. 47 (1969) 236–238.
- The validity of soft pion theorems for radiative pion absorption in nuclei, L.P. Fulcher, R. Guy, J.M. Eisenberg and H. Pietschmann, Phys. Lett. 29B (1969) 338–340.
- Rescattering corrections in radiative pion absorption, R. Guy and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. B11 (1969) 601–610.
- Pion absorption followed by two-nucleon emission, W. Elsaesser and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A144 (1970) 441–448.
- Radiative pion absorption in nuclei and soft-pion theorems, L.P. Fulcher and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. B18 (1970) 271–300; erratum B24 (1970) 659.
- Pion production in pion–nucleus collisions, J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A148 (1970) 135–144.
- Positive pion reactions with 12C, W.B. Jones and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A154 (1970) 49–64.
- Dynamic nuclear effects in pionic and kaonic atoms, P.K. Haff and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. 33B (1970) 133–136.
- Radiative pion absorption in medium and heavy nuclei, R. Guy and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. 33B (1970) 137–139.
- Multiple-scattering theory for pion–nucleus scattering near the 3,3 resonance, L.A. Charlton and J.M. Eisenberg, Ann. Phys. 63 (1971) 286–308 [de Shalit Memorial Volume].
- Electroproduction of slow pions on nuclei and giant resonance vibrations, J.M. Eisenberg and H.J. Weber, Phys. Lett. 34B (1971) 107–109.
- Pion charge-exchange scattering on nuclei and isobaric analog resonances, L.A. Charlton and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A171 (1971) 625–630.
- Charge-exchange scattering of pions on 14N, A.P. Maclin and J.M. Eisenberg, Can. J. Phys. 49 (1971) 1826–1827.
- Nuclear photoemission following radiative pion absorption, R. Guy and J.M. Eisenberg, Can. J. Phys. 49 (1971) 1879–1884.
- On the relationship between the Glauber approximation and the Watson multiple-scattering theory, J.M. Eisenberg, Ann. Phys. 71 (1972) 542–555.
- Higher-order corrections to the optical potential for kaonic atoms, J.M. Eisenberg and R. Guy, Can. J. Phys. 50 (1972) 57–60.
- Pion production by 600 MeV protons on light nuclei, J.M. Eisenberg, R. Guy, J.V. Noble and H.J. Weber, Phys. Lett. 43B (1973) 93–95.
- Exclusion principle effects in pion–nucleus scattering in the region of the 3,3 resonance, J.M. Eisenberg and H.J. Weber, Phys. Lett. 45B (1973) 110–114.
- Exclusion principle effects in pion–deuteron scattering near the 3,3 resonance, N.R. Nath, H.J. Weber and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. C 8 (1973) 2488–2491.
- The Lorentz–Lorenz effect in pion–nucleus interactions, J.M. Eisenberg, J. Huefner and E.J. Moniz, Phys. Lett. 47B (1973) 381–384.
- Effects of spin and isospin degrees of freedom for pion–nucleus scattering in the Glauber theory, A.T. Hess and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. 47B (1973) 311–314.
- Double-nucleon emission following pion absorption with a three-body description of the final state, H. Garcilazo and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A220 (1974) 13–30.
- Quenching in the basic πN amplitude for pion–nucleus scattering, J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. 49B (1974) 224–226.
- Comment on Pauli blocking in pion–nucleus scattering, H.J. Weber and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. C 10 (1974) 925–927.
- A heuristic model of pion–nucleus charge-exchange scattering, D. Tow and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A237 (1975) 441–446.
- Inelastic pion–nucleus scattering in distorted-wave impulse approximation, A.T. Hess and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A241 (1975) 493–510.
- Consequences of nuclear dynamics for the nonrelativistic πNN vertex, J.M. Eisenberg, J.V. Noble and H.J. Weber, Phys. Rev. C 11 (1975) 1048–1050.
- Off-shell πN effects in pion–nucleus inelastic scattering, H. Garcilazo and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A244 (1975) 487–496.
- Pion absorption effects in the reaction 3H(π+,π0)He, J.M. Eisenberg and V.B. Mandelzweig, Phys. Lett. 53B (1975) 405–408.
- Generalizations of distorted-wave impulse approximation for nuclear (π+,π0) reactions, J.M. Eisenberg and A. Gal, Phys. Lett. 58B (1975) 390–394.
- Pion–deuteron elastic scattering in a relativistic three-body theory, V.B. Mandelzweig, H. Garcilazo and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A256 (1976) 461–478.
- Comment on 13C(π+,π0) 13N(g.s.) in the (3,3) resonance region, A. Gal and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. C 14 (1976) 1273–1276.
- Behavior of the Λ(1405) resonance in nuclear matter, J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. C 14 (1976) 2343–2345.
- Multiple pion exchange in a nonstatic theory of nucleon–nucleon scattering and isobar production, H.J. Weber, J.M. Eisenberg and M.D. Shuster, Nucl. Phys. A278 (1977) 491–505.
- The exchange of ρ mesons in πd and π4He elastic scattering, E. Levin and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A292 (1977) 459–476.
- Isovector correlations and pion single-charge-exchange reactions in light nuclei, J. Warszawski, A. Gal and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A294 (1978) 321–347.
- Proton distortion and asymmetries in the (p,π) reaction, H.J. Weber and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A312 (1978) 201–208.
- The quadrupole term of the Lorentz–Lorenz effect in pionic atoms, J. Warszawski, J.M. Eisenberg and A. Gal, Nucl. Phys. A312 (1978) 253–264.
- Orthogonality in medium-energy nuclear reactions, J.M. Eisenberg, J.V. Noble and H.J. Weber, Phys. Rev. C 19 (1979) 276–278.
- Reactive content of the optical potential, J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. C 19 (1979) 559–561.
- Theoretical search for a πnn stable bound state, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, J. Phys. G 5 (1979) 35–38.
- Models for the nonstatic NΔ interaction, E. Kapon, E. Piasetzky and J.M. Eisenberg, J. Phys. G 5 (1979) 893–905.
- The Kd → pΛπ reaction at low energies in the Faddeev formalism, G. Toker, A. Gal and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. 88B (1979) 235–238.
- The (π,2π) process as a possible probe of pion condensation precursor phenomena, J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. 93B (1980) 12–15.
- A simple relationship between pion–nucleus charge-exchange and inelastic cross sections, J.M. Eisenberg, J. Phys. G 6 (1980) 1265–1269.
- Observational tests of models for a relativistic nucleon bound in scalar and vector potentials, J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A355 (1981) 269–276.
- A theoretical study of pion-induced knockout reactions in nuclei, E. Levin and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A355 (1981) 277–311.
- Threshold electroproduction of charged pions and pion condensation precursor phenomena, J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A355 (1981) 312–320.
- The study of pion condensation precursor phenomena through nuclear continuum excitations, J.M. Eisenberg, J. Phys. G 7 (1981) 439–444.
- The YN interactions and K− reactions on deuterium at low energies, G. Toker, A. Gal and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A362 (1981) 405–430.
- Pion exchange-current contribution to pion inelastic scattering, J. Cohen and J.M. Eisenberg, J. Phys. G 7 (1981) 881–894.
- A heuristic model for nucleon effective mass features in the presence of pion condensation, J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. 104B (1981) 353–356.
- Final-state effects in the (π,2N) reaction, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A382 (1982) 413–433.
- Multiple scattering in dilute systems, J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A389 (1982) 595–604.
- The (π,2π) reaction and spin–isospin strength distribution in nuclei, J. Cohen and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A395 (1983) 389–412.
- An eikonal treatment including two-step mechanisms for the (p,n) reaction on light nuclei, J. Kronenfeld, A. Gal and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A402 (1983) 569–580.
- Chiral bag models and πN → ππN reaction, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. D 28 (1983) 66–70.
- Pion photoproduction in the Δ(1232) region and the chiral bag model, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. D 28 (1983) 71–78.
- A schematic model for spin–isospin strength distribution in finite nuclei, J.M. Eisenberg, J. Phys. G 9 (1983) 707–717.
- (e,e'π) reaction on light nuclei and spin–isospin strength distribution effects, J. Cohen and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. C 28 (1983) 1309–1317.
- The (e,e'π) reaction on light nuclei and spin–isospin strength distribution effects, J. Cohen and J.M. Eisenberg, N. Cimento 76A (1983) 483–487.
- The (π,2π) reaction and spin–isospin strength distribution in nuclei, J. Cohen and J.M. Eisenberg, N. Cimento 76A (1983) 488–493.
- Applications of the chiral bag models to the Roper resonance, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. D 29 (1983) 517–524.
- Response to spin–isospin longitudinal probes and pionlike excitations in finite nuclei, J. Cohen and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. C 29 (1983) 914–931.
- Chiral soliton-bag models with nonlinear pion fields, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. 139B (1984) 337–340.
- The ABC effect and chiral bag models, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A426 (1984) 599–608.
- Antiproton–nucleus scattering with self-consistent model for medium corrections, J. Kronenfeld, A. Gal and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A430 (1984) 525–538.
- Quark–gluon plasma cooling through pion emission in a chiral bag model, B. Mueller and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A435 (1985) 791–809.
- Nucleon–nucleon force in a skyrmion model stabilized by omega-exchange, J.M. Eisenberg, A. Erell and R.R. Silbar, Phys. Rev. C 33 (1986) 1531–1534.
- Absence of attraction in the NN central potential derived from skyrmions, G. Kaelbermann, J.M. Eisenberg, R.R. Silbar and M.M. Sternheim, Phys. Lett. B 150 (1986) 4–8.
- An improved approximation for the skyrmion description of the NN system, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. B 188 (1987) 311–313.
- Properties of skyrmions of large baryon number, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, J. Phys. G 13 (1987) 1029–1035.
- Pair production in transport equations, J.M. Eisenberg and G. Kaelbermann, Phys. Rev. D 37 (1988) 1197–1201.
- The isoscalar charge form factor in nuclei of A = 2, 3 obtained in the Skyrme model, Y. Kluger and J.M. Eisenberg. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 3 (1988) 2127–2142.
- A search for πnn bound states, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. B 211 (1988) 389–392.
- Further investigations of the NN interaction in the Skyrme model, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, J. Phys. G 15 (1989) 157–160.
- NN interactions in the Skyrme model, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A 500 (1989) 589–595.
- Baryon octet interactions in nuclei, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. B 235 (1990) 6–10.
- Properties of the baryon octet in the SU(3) Skyrme model, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. B 247 (1990) 206–209.
- Radial vibrations in the SU(3) Skyrme model and the NN interaction, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. B 257 (1991) 259–262.
- Consequences of an alternate skyrmion stabilizing term for the NN force, G. Kaelbermann, G. Pari and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. C 44 (1991) 899–901.
- Pair production in a strong electric field, Y. Kluger, J.M. Eisenberg, B. Svetitsky, F. Cooper and E. Mottola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67 (1991) 2427–2430.
- Pair production in a strong electric field with back-reaction — an interim summary, J.M. Eisenberg, Y. Kluger and B. Svetitsky, Acta Phys. Polonica B 23 (1992) 577–590.
- Fermion pair production in a strong electric field, Y. Kluger, J.M. Eisenberg, B. Svetitsky, F. Cooper and E. Mottola, Phys. Rev. D 45 (1992) 4659–4671.
- Baryon-octet interactions in the Skyrme model with vibrations and rotations, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. D 46 (1992) 446–452.
- Does the skyrmion support color transparency? J.M. Eisenberg and G. Kaelbermann, Phys. Lett. B 286 (1992) 24–28.
- Particle production in the central rapidity region, F. Cooper, J.M. Eisenberg, Y. Kluger, E. Mottola, and B. Svetitsky, Phys. Rev. D 48 (1993) 190–208.
- Pair production in a strong electric field with back-reaction in the context of the quark–gluon plasma, Y. Kluger, B. Svetitsky, and J.M. Eisenberg, Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 2 (1993) 333–380.
- Pair creation in transport equations using the equal-time Wigner function, Ch. Best and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. D 47 (1993) 4639–4646.
- Three-nucleon interactions in the Skyrme model, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. B 304 (1993) 35–38.
- A symmetrized ansatz for the dibaryon skyrmion, R. Levy-Nathansohn and J.M. Eisenberg, Int. J. Mod. Phys. E. 2 (1993) 587–595.
- Changes in the radius of a nucleon in interaction with another nucleon, G. Kaelbermann, L.L. Frankfurt, and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. B 329 (1994) 164–168.
- Skyrmions at finite temperature, J. Dey and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. B 334 (1994) 290–294.
- Proton spin content from skyrmions, G. Kaelbermann, J.M. Eisenberg, and A. Schaefer, Phys. Lett. B 339 (1994) 211–214.
- Back-reaction in a cylinder, J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. D 51 (1995) 1938–1947.
- Spin content from skyrmions with parameters fit to baryon properties, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Nucl. Phys. A 587 (1995) 609–616.
- An attractive nucleon–nucleon spin–orbit force from skyrmions with dilatons, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Lett. B 349 (1995) 416–420.
- A derivation of the Boltzmann–Vlasov equation from multiple scattering using the Wigner function, J.M. Eisenberg, Heavy Ion Phys. 1 (1995) 53–59.
- Hot nuclear matter with dilatons, G. Kaelbermann, J.M. Eisenberg, and B. Svetitsky, Nucl. Phys. A 600 (1996) 436–444.
- The nucleon–nucleon force from skyrmions, J.M. Eisenberg and G. Kaelbermann, Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 5 (1996) 423–458.
- Back reaction in the presence of thermalizing collisions, J.M. Eisenberg, Found. Phys. 27 (1997) 1213–1220.
- Hot nuclear matter in the quark meson coupling model, P.K. Panda, A. Mishra, J.M. Eisenberg, and W. Greiner, Phys. Rev. C 56 (1997) 3134–3139.
- The quantum Vlasov equation and its Markov limit, Y. Kluger, E. Mottola, and J.M. Eisenberg, Phys. Rev. D 58 (1998) 125015.

**Chapters in books - invited talks:**

- Pion interactions in nuclei, J.M. Eisenberg, in Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-4080 rev, January, 1969 (LANL, Los Alamos, 1969) pp. 24–25.
- Pion on nucleus, J.M. Eisenberg, in Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-4637-MS, January, 1971 (LANL, Los Alamos, 1971) pp. 4–5.
- Pion–nucleus interactions — a nonsystematic review, J.M. Eisenberg, Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-5190-C, March, 1973 (LANL, Los Alamos, 1973) pp. 51–53.
- A proposal regarding (γ,p) and (p,γ) experiments, J.V. Noble and H.J. Weber, in Proc. int. conf. on photonuclear interactions and applications, Asilomar, March, 1973 (USAEC, Oak Ridge, 1973) pp. 957–963.
- Introductory review of the multiple-scattering theory for pion–nucleus scattering, in Los Alamos National Laboratory report LA-5443-C, October, 1973, W.R. Gibbs and B.F. Gibson, eds. (LANL, Los Alamos, 1973) pp. 14–42.
- Pauli blocking in pion–nucleus scattering in the 3,3 resonance region, J.M. Eisenberg and H.J. Weber, ibid., pp. 162–171.
- Effects of spin and isospin degrees of freedom for pion–nucleus scattering in the Glauber theory, A.T. Hess and J.M. Eisenberg, ibid., pp. 311–314.
- Pion–nucleus interactions, J.M. Eisenberg, in Interaction studies in nuclei, H. Jochim and B. Ziegler, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1975) pp. 523–555.
- Pion–nucleus reaction processes, J.M. Eisenberg, in High-energy physics and nuclear structure, D.E. Nagle et al., eds. (AIP, New York, 1975) pp. 17–39.
- Recent developments involving isobars in nuclear systems, J.M. Eisenberg and H.J. Weber, in Proc. seventh int. conf. on high-energy physics and nuclear structure, M.P. Locher ed. (Birkhaeuser, Basel, 1977) pp. 193–201.
- Beyond lowest-order results in pion–nucleus reactions, J.M. Eisenberg, in Common problems in low- and medium-energy nuclear physics, B. Castel et al., eds. (Plenum, New York, 1979) pp. 551–611.
- Meson–nuclear physics 1979: a perspective, J.M. Eisenberg, in Meson–nuclear physics—1979, E.V. Hungerford, ed. (AIP, New York, 1979) pp. 1–14.
- Theoretical aspects of pion photo- and electroproduction, J.M. Eisenberg, in Nuclear physics with electromagnetic interactions, H. Arenhoevel and D. Drechsel, eds. (Springer, Berlin, 1979) pp. 325–338.
- Future developments in pion– and kaon–nuclear physics and the EM probe, J.M. Eisenberg, in From collective states to quarks in nuclei, H. Arenhoevel and A.M. Saruis, eds., (Springer, Berlin, 1981) pp. 368–374.
- Pion production and absorption in nuclei: introductory remarks on the (p,π) and (π,p) reactions, J.M. Eisenberg, in Pion production and absorption in nuclei—1981, R.D. Bent, ed. (AIP, New York, 1982) pp. 3–13.
- Nonlinear pion field effects in chiral bag models, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, in Perspectives in nuclear physics at intermediate energies, S. Boffi et al., eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1984) pp. 447–454.
- Hadronic physics with LAMPF II — a summary, J.M. Eisenberg, in Proc. Third LAMPF II workshop, J.C. Allred, ed. (LANL, Los Alamos, 1983) pp. 989–1011.
- Nonlinear pion field effects in chiral bag models, G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, in Few-body problems in physics, B. Zeitnitz, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984) pp. 621–624.
- An introduction to skyrmions as applied in nuclear physics, J.M. Eisenberg, in Physics of strong fields, W. Greiner, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1987) pp. 679–706.
- An introduction to skyrmions in nuclear physics, in Quarks, gluons, and hadronic matter, (Proc. Cape Town Workshop, 1987, R. Violliers, ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1987) pp. 3–22.
- Pair production in transport equations, in The Physics of the Quark–Gluon Plasma, S. Costa Ramos and J. Dias de Deus, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988) 201–208.
- The use of skyrmions for two-nucleon systems. G. Kaelbermann and J.M. Eisenberg, in Prog. Nucl. Part. Phys. 22, A. Faessler, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989), p. 1–42.
- Transport equations for the quark–gluon plasma, J.M. Eisenberg, Y. Kluger and A. Rosenhauer, in The Nuclear Equation of State, W. Greiner, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1989) p. 501.
- Skyrmions for two-baryon systems, J.M. Eisenberg and G. Kaelbermann, in Proc. Int. Conf. on the Nuclear Few-Body Problem, H. Fearing, ed. Nucl. Phys. A508 (1989) 395c–404c.
- Pair production in a strong electric field with back-reaction, J.M. Eisenberg, Y. Kluger and B. Svetitsky, in Proceedings of the Bormio Winter School, 1992, I. Iora, ed. (Milano Univ., Milano, 1992).
- Pair production in a strong electric field with back-reaction, J.M. Eisenberg, in Proceedings of the Zakopane Summer School, June, 1992, Acta Phys. Polonica B 23 (1992) 1047.
- The equal-time Wigner transform of the Klein–Gordon field and pair production, Ch. Best, J.M. Eisenberg, G. Soff, W. Greiner, in Proceedings of the International Workshop in Nuclear Physics, Paris, June, 1992 (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993) pp. 270–275.
- Transport equations with particle production and back-reaction, J.M. Eisenberg, in Hot and Dense Nuclear Matter, W. Greiner, H. Stoecker, and A. Gallmann, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1994) pp. 333–342.
- Transport equations embodying particle production and back-reaction, J.M. Eisenberg, in Proceedings of the Workshop on Pre-equilibrium Parton Dynamics, X.-N. Wang, ed. (LBL-34831, Berkeley, 1994) pp. 99–112.
- The nucleon–nucleon force from skyrmions, J.M. Eisenberg and G. Kaelbermann, in Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, volume 36, ed. A. Faessler (Elsevier, Oxford, 1996) pp. 321–334.
- The nucleon in the nucleus as given by skyrmions, J.M. Eisenberg and G. Kaelbermann, in Proc. Int. Conf. on Nuclear Physics at the Turn of the Millenium: Structure of Vacuum and Elementary Matters, eds. H. Stoecker, A. Gallmann, and J.H. Hamilton (World Scientific, Singapore, 1977) p. 596.
- Two-baryon forces from skyrmions (April, 1996), J.M. Eisenberg and G. Kaelbermann, in Int. Workshop on Hadron Physics 96, eds. E. Ferreira, R.A.M.S. Nazareth, V.L. Baltar, and J. de Sa Borges (World Scientific, Singapore, 1997) p. 55.

**Papers online:**

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**Hot nuclear matter**

P. K. Panda, A. Mishra, J. M. Eisenberg, and W. Greiner, *Hot nuclear matter in the quark meson coupling model*, Phys. Rev. C **56** (1997) 3134 [nucl-th/9705045].

We study here hot nuclear matter in the quark meson coupling (QMC) model which incorporates explicitly quark degrees of freedom, with quarks coupled to scalar and vector mesons. The equation of state of nuclear matter including the composite nature of the nucleons is calculated at finite temperatures. The calculations are done taking into account the medium-dependent bag constant. Nucleon properties at finite temperatures as calculated here are found to be appreciably different from the value at *T* = 0.

**Text and figures (compressed Postscript)**

G. Kälbermann, J. M. Eisenberg, and B. Svetitsky, *Hot nuclear matter with dilatons,* Nucl. Phys. **A600** (1996) 436 (nucl-th/9510011).

We study hot nuclear matter in a model based on nucleon interactions deriving from the exchange of scalar and vector mesons. The main new feature of our work is the treatment of the scale breaking of quantum chromodynamics through the introduction of a dilaton field. Although the dilaton effects are quite small quantitatively, they affect the high-temperature phase transition appreciably. We find that inclusion of the dilaton leads to a metastable high-density state at zero pressure, similar to that found by Glendenning who considered instead the admixture of higher baryon resonances.

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**Particle pair production in strong electric fields**

Y. Kluger, E. Mottola, and J. M. Eisenberg, *The quantum Vlasov equation and its Markov limit,* Phys. Rev. D **58** (1998) 125015 [hep-ph/9803372].

The adiabatic particle number in mean field theory obeys a quantum Vlasov equation which is nonlocal in time. For weak, slowly varying electric fields this particle number can be identified with the single particle distribution function in phase space, and its time rate of change is the appropriate effective source term for the Boltzmann–Vlasov equation. By analyzing the evolution of the particle number we exhibit the time structure of the particle creation process in a constant electric field, and derive the local form of the source term due to pair creation. In order to capture the secular Schwinger creation rate, the source term requires an asymptotic expansion which is uniform in time, and whose longitudinal momentum dependence can be approximated by a delta function only on long time scales. The local Vlasov source term amounts to a kind of Markov limit of field theory, where information about quantum phase correlations in the created pairs is ignored and a reversible Hamiltonian evolution is replaced by an irreversible kinetic one. This replacement has a precise counterpart in the density matrix description, where it corresponds to disregarding the rapidly varying off-diagonal terms in the adiabatic number basis and treating the more slowly varying diagonal elements as the probabilities of creating pairs in a stochastic process. A numerical comparison between the quantum and local kinetic approaches to the dynamical backreaction problem shows remarkably good agreement, even in quite strong electric fields, over a large range of times.

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J. M. Eisenberg, *Back reaction in the presence of thermalizing collisions*, in L. C. Biedenharn Memorial Volume: Found. Phys. **27**, 1213 (1997) [hep-ph/9609205].

Preequilibrium parton production following an ultrarelativistic nucleus–nucleus collision is studied in terms of the decay of a strong chromoelectric field which generates pairs through the Schwinger mechanism. Back-reaction of the partons with the field is included and a model transport equation containing a collision term is solved for the central rapidity region based on an approximation in which the partons relax to a thermal distribution.

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J. M. Eisenberg, *A didactic derivation of the Boltzmann–Vlasov equation from multiple scattering using the Wigner function*, dedicated to the memory of Eugene Wigner, Heavy Ion Phys. **1** (1995) 53 (8 pp.) [nucl-th/0505006].

A derivation is given of the Boltzmann–Vlasov equation beginning from multiple scattering considerations. The motivation for the discussion, which is purely pedagogical in nature, is the current interest in understanding the origins of transport equations in terms of rigorous field-theory descriptions, or, as in this case, exact nonrelativistic formulations.

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J. M. Eisenberg, *Back-reaction in a cylinder*, Phys. Rev. D **51** (1995) 1938 [hep-ph/9410329].

A system is studied in which initially a strong classical electric field exists within an infinitely-long cylinder and no charges are present. Subsequently, within the cylinder, pairs of charged particles tunnel out from the vacuum and the current produced through their acceleration by the field acts back on the field, setting up plasma oscillations. This yields a rough model of phenomena that may occur in the pre-equilibrium formation phase of a quark–gluon plasma. In an infinite volume, this back-reaction has been studied in a field-theory description, and it has been found that the results of a full calculation of this sort are well represented in a much simpler transport formalism. It is the purpose here to explore that comparison for a situation involving a cylindrical volume of given radius.

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F. Cooper, J. M. Eisenberg, Y. Kluger, E. Mottola, and B. Svetitsky, *Particle production in the central rapidity region*, Phys. Rev. D **48** (1993) 190 (hep-ph/9212206).

We study pair production from a strong electric field in boost-invariant coordinates as a simple model for the central rapidity region of a heavy-ion collision. We derive and solve the renormalized equations for the time evolution of the mean electric field and current of the produced particles, when the field is taken to be a function only of the fluid proper time. We find that a relativistic transport theory with a Schwinger source term modified to take Pauli blocking (or Bose enhancement) into account gives a good description of the numerical solution to the field equations. We also compute the renormalized energy–momentum tensor of the produced particles and compare the effective pressure, energy and entropy density to that expected from hydrodynamic models of energy and momentum flow of the plasma.

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Y. Kluger, J. M. Eisenberg, and B. Svetitsky, *Pair production in a strong electric field: an initial value problem in quantum field theory*, Int. J. Mod. Phys. E **2** (1993) 333 (hep-ph/0311293).

We review recent achievements in the solution of the initial-value problem for quantum back-reaction in scalar and spinor QED. The problem is formulated and solved in the semiclassical mean-field approximation for a homogeneous, time-dependent electric field. Our primary motivation in examining back-reaction has to do with applications to theoretical models of production of the quark–gluon plasma, though we here address practicable solutions for back-reaction in general. We review the application of the method of adiabatic regularization to the Klein–Gordon and Dirac fields in order to renormalize the expectation value of the current and derive a finite coupled set of ordinary differential equations for the time evolution of the system. Three time scales are involved in the problem and therefore caution is needed to achieve numerical stability for this system. Several physical features, like plasma oscillations and plateaus in the current, appear in the solution. From the plateau of the electric current one can estimate the number of pairs before the onset of plasma oscillations, while the plasma oscillations themselves yield the number of particles from the plasma frequency.

We compare the field-theory solution to a simple model based on a relativistic Boltzmann–Vlasov equation, with a particle production source term inferred from the Schwinger particle creation rate and a Pauli-blocking (or Bose-enhancement) factor. This model reproduces very well the time behavior of the electric field and the creation rate of charged pairs of the semiclassical calculation. It therefore provides a simple intuitive understanding of the nature of the solution since nearly all the physical features can be expressed in terms of the classical distribution function.

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Y. Kluger, J. M. Eisenberg, B. Svetitsky, F. Cooper, and E. Mottola, *Fermion pair production in a strong electric field*, Phys. Rev. D **45** (1992) 4659.

The initial-value problem for the quantum back-reaction in spinor QED is formulated and solved in the semiclassical mean field approximation, for a homogeneous but time-dependent electric field

E(t). We apply the method of adiabatic regularization to the Dirac equation in order to renormalize the expectation value of the current and derive a finite coupled set of ordinary differential equations for the time evolution of the system. We solve this system in (1+1) dimensions numerically and compare the solution to a simple model based on a relativistic Boltzmann–Vlasov equation, with a particle production source term inferred from the Schwinger particle creation rate and a Pauli-blocking factor. This model reproduces very well the time behavior of the electric field and the creation rate of electron–positron pairs of the semiclassical calculation.

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J. M. Eisenberg, Y. Kluger, and B. Svetitsky, *Pair production in a strong electric field with back-reaction — an interim summary*, Acta Phys. Polon. **B23** (1992) 577.

*Dedicated to Wieslaw Czyz on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday*

We present a summary of the present status of efforts to solve the problem in which pairs are produced in a strong electric field, are accelerated by it, and then react back on it through the counter-field produced by their current. This picture has been used by Bialas and Czyz and others as a model for effects that may possibly arise in the study of the quark–gluon plasma. We here give a didactic review of recent developments in this back-reaction problem. We first present a simple version of the theory of pair tunneling from a fixed electric field, and then sketch how this has been applied to the quark–gluon plasma. Then we turn to a field formulation of the problem for charged bosons, which leads to the need to carry out a renormalization program, outlined again in simple terms. Numerical results for this program are presented for one spatial dimension, the corresponding physical behavior of the system is discussed, and the implications for three spatial dimensions are considered. We exhibit a phenomenological transport equation embodying physics that is essentially identical to that of the field formulation, thus helping to tie the model of Bialas and Czyz for the quark–gluon plasma to a field-theory formulation. Last, we note the status of extensions to (i) the problem with three space dimensions; (ii) the fermion case; (iii) the formulation in terms of boost-invariant variables (as desirable for the quark–gluon plasma); and (iv) transport equations derived in a fundamental and consistent fashion.

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Y. Kluger, J. M. Eisenberg, B. Svetitsky, F. Cooper, and E. Mottola, *Pair production in a strong electric field*, Phys. Rev. Lett. **67** (1991) 2427.

We investigate the mechanism of pair creation in scalar QED from spatially homogeneous strong electric fields in 1+1 dimensions. Solution of the semiclassical field equations shows particle creation followed by plasma oscillations. We compare our results with a model based on a relativistic Boltzmann–Vlasov equation with a pair-creation source term related to the Schwinger mechanism. The time evolution of the electric field and the current obtained from the Boltzmann–Vlasov model is surprisingly similar to that found in the semiclassical calculation.

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**Skyrmions**

J. M. Eisenberg and G. Kälbermann, *Two-baryon forces from skyrmions*, lectures given at the International Workshop on Hadron Physics 96, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, April 1996, published in proceedings, ed. by E. Ferreira *et al*. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1997) (69 pp.).

Background material on solitons and, especially, skyrmions is provided and the applications of the latter to the derivation of the nucleon–nucleon force is reviewed with attention to the use of the product ansatz, additional terms in the lagrangian, baryon resonance admixtures, dilatons, and exact two- or three-dimensional solutions for the *B* = 2 system in order to find the sources of attraction in the central and spin–orbit potentials. We discuss extensions to two-baryon systems with nonzero strangeness and address applications to the behavior of the nucleon in nuclei achieved from skyrmions.

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J. M. Eisenberg and G. Kälbermann, *The nucleon in the nucleus as given by skyrmions*, lecture given at the International Conference on Nuclear Physics at the Turn of Millennium, Wilderness, South Africa, 10–16 March 1996, published in *Structure of Vacuum and Elementary Matter*, ed. by H. Stocker, A. Gallmann, and J. H. Hamilton (World Scientific, Singapore, 1997).

Background material on solitons and, especially, skyrmions is provided and the applications of the latter to the derivation of the nucleon–nucleon force is reviewed with attention to the use of the product ansatz, additional terms in the lagrangian, baryon resonance admixtures, dilatons, and exact two- or three-dimensional solutions for the *B* = 2 system in order to find the sources of attraction in the central and spin-orbit potentials. We discuss extensions to two-baryon systems with nonzero strangeness and address applications to the behavior of the nucleon in nuclei achieved from skyrmions.

J. M. Eisenberg and G. Kälbermann, *The nucleon–nucleon force from skyrmions*, lectures delivered by J.M. Eisenberg at the Lajos Kossuth University in Debrecen, Hungary, September 1995 (46 pp.), published in Int. J. Mod. Phys. E **5** (1996) 423.

The applications of skyrmions to the derivation of the nucleon–nucleon force is reviewed with attention to the use of the product ansatz, additional terms in the lagrangian, baryon resonance admixtures, the instanton ansatz, dilatons, and exact two- or three-dimensional solutions for the B = 2 system in order to find the sources of attraction in the central and spin–orbit potentials. We also discuss extensions to two-baryon systems with nonzero strangeness and address possible insights into the behavior of the nucleon in nuclei achieved from the skyrmion approach.

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J. M. Eisenberg and G. Kälbermann, *The nucleon–nucleon force from skyrmions,* talk delivered at the Seventeenth Course of the International School on Nuclear Physics: Quarks in Hadrons and Nuclei, September, 1995, Erice, Sicily, Italy, published in *Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics ***36** (1996) 321.

The applications of skyrmions to the derivation of the nucleon–nucleon force is reviewed with attention to the use of the product ansatz, additional terms in the lagrangian, baryon resonance admixtures, the instanton ansatz, dilatons, and exact two- or three-dimensional solutions for the *B* = 2 system in order to find the sources of attraction in the central and spin–orbit potentials.

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G. Kälbermann and J. M. Eisenberg, *An attractive nucleon–nucleon spin–orbit force from skyrmions with dilatons*, Phys. Lett. B **349** (1995) 416 [hep-ph/9501400].

Within the skyrmion approach for the nucleon–nucleon force, difficulties have been experienced in obtaining an isoscalar attractive spin–orbit potential, in parallel to the problems of finding attraction in the isoscalar central potential. We here study the spin–orbit force using a skyrmion with four- and six-derivative stabilizing terms in the lagrangian as well as with the crucial addition of a dilaton. With these features present the spin–orbit force proves to be attractive as does the central potential. In the absence of the dilaton, attraction can also be found for the spin–orbit potential but only at the expense of a greatly over-emphasized term with six derivatives and a continuing absence of attraction in the central potential.

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G. Kälbermann and J. M. Eisenberg, *Spin content from skyrmions with parameters fit to baryon properties*, Nucl. Phys. A **587** (1995) 609 [hep-ph/9501302].

Earlier work reported on the existence of a term within a generalized skyrmion approach that yields appreciable spin content for the proton. Unfortunately there is no accessible experiment that can fix the coefficient of this term directly; plausible but highly uncertain values for it gave a result for the spin content loosely consistent with the currently measured ΔΣ = 0.273±0.13. We here attempt to narrow the range of values for this coefficient by performing global fits to all the parameters of the generalized Skyrme lagrangian while requiring reasonable results for the baryon octet and decuplet masses and octet magnetic moments. This requirement fixes the coefficient loosely, and we find that parameter sets that fit the baryon masses and magnetic moments yield proton spin content near ΔΣ ~ 0.15.

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G. Kälbermann, J. M. Eisenberg, and A. Schäfer, *Proton spin content from skyrmions*, Phys. Lett. B **339** (1994) 211 [hep-ph/9409299].

It is well known that in lowest order the skyrmion model of the nucleon gives vanishing spin content. With new data indicating a proton spin content ΔΣ = 0.22±0.14, it is an increasing challenge to find ways in which the skyrmion can move away from the null result. We show here that a particular term in the skyrmion lagrangian in SU(3) involving six derivatives of the field can, with plausible parameters, yield a spin content consistent with present experiment.

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